Joe’s previous areas of research has been on the ways in which pervasive language ideologies that enforce ‘English-only’ linguistic norms, operate to criminalise language minoritised peoples through every stage of the criminal legal process, including police interviews, court proceedings and lawyer-client conferences. Nowadays Joe is interested in the ways that comics and graphic novels have been used within transformative justice movements through (literally) illustrating the violence of the carceral State, and the means through which ‘justice’ can be realised beyond the criminal punishment system and other carceral contexts.